Deep trade agreements are an important institutional infrastructure for regional integration. They reduce trade costs and set many of the rules under which economies operate. If made effective, they can improve political cooperation between countries, thereby increasing international trade and investment, economic growth and social welfare. Studies conducted by the World Bank Group have shown that, in cooperation with partners such as the WTO and the OECD, the World Bank Group informs and supports client countries wishing to sign or deepen regional trade agreements. Concretely, the WBG`s work is as follows: regional trade agreements are multiplying and changing their nature. Fifty trade agreements were in force in 1990. In 2017, there were more than 280. In many trade agreements, negotiations today go beyond tariffs and cover several policies that influence trade and investment in goods and services, including rules across the border, such as competition policy, government procurement rules and intellectual property rights. ASAs covering tariffs and other border measures are “superficial” agreements; THE RTAs, which cover a larger group of policies, at and below the border, are “deep” agreements.
A regional trade agreement (RTA) is a treaty between two or more governments that sets out the trade rules applicable to all signatories. Regional trade agreements include the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Central American-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), the European Union (EU) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Mattoo, A., A. Mulabdic und M. Ruta. 2017. “Trade Creation and Trade Diversion in Deep Agreements”. Policy Research Working Paper Series 8206, Weltbank, Washington, DC. Maliszewska M, Z. Olekseyuk und I. Osorio-Rodarte, März 2018, Economic and distributional impacts of comprehensive and progressive agreement for trans-pacific partnership: the case of Vietnam.
Washington, D.C.: Weltbankgruppe. Osnago, A., N. Rocha and M. Ruta. 2017. “Fördern deep trade agreements vertikale FDI?” World Bank Economic Review 30 (Beilage): 119-125. Mulabdic, A., A. Osnago and M.
Ruta. 2017. “Deep Integration and Trade Relationship between the UK and the EU”. In The Economics of UK-EU Relations, herausgegeben von Nauro F. Campos und Fabrizio Coricelli, 253-282. Springer. Ruta, M. 2017. “Präferenzhandelsabkommen und globale Wertschöpfungsketten: Theorie, Evidenz und offene Fragen.” Policy Research Working Paper Series 8190.
Weltbank, Washington, DC. Osnago, A., N. Rocha and M. Ruta. bevorstehend. “Deep Trade Agreements and Vertical FDI: the devil is in the details.” Canadian Journal of the Economy. . . .